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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 456MB

    Lanuage:Englist

    Software instructions


      In shading drawings, be careful not to use too deep tints, and to put the shades in the right place. Many will contend, and not without good reasons, that working drawings require no shading; yet it will do no harm to learn how and where they can be shaded: it is better to omit the shading from choice than from necessity. Sections must, of course, be shadednot with lines, although I fear to attack so old a custom, yet it is certainly a tedious and useless one: sections with light ink shading of different colours, to indicate the kind of material, are easier to make, and look much better. By the judicious arrangement of a drawing, a large share of it may be in sections, which in almost every case are the best views to work by. The proper colouring of sections gives a good appearance to a drawing, and conveys an idea of an organised machine, or, to use the shop term, "stands out from the paper." In shading sections, leave a margin of white between the tints and the lines on the upper and left-hand sides of the section: this breaks the connection or sameness, and the effect is striking; it separates the parts, [85] and adds greatly to the clearness and general appearance of a drawing.


      Aside from the greater rapidity with which a hammer may operate when working on this principle, there is nothing gained, and much lost; and as this kind of action is imperative in any hammer that has a 'maintained or positive connection' between its reciprocating parts and the valve, it is perhaps fair to infer that one reason why most automatic hammers act with elastic blows is either because of a want of knowledge as to a proper valve arrangement, or the mechanical difficulties in arranging valve gear to produce dead blows.

      Some hints will now be given relating to apprentice experience in a workshop, such matters being selected as are most likely to be of interest and use to a learner.There lay also a woman, with one leg amputated. Her husband had been murdered, another bullet had entered the leg of the baby in her arms. Another woman had her child murdered in her arms.

      Fitting processes, being the final ones in constructing machinery, are more nearly in connection with its use and application; they consist in the organisation or bringing together the results of other processes carried on in the draughting room, pattern shop, foundry, and smith shop.It may also be mentioned that lathes constructed with angular guides, have usually such ways for the moving heads as well as for the carriages; this gives the advantage of firmly binding the [125] two sides of the frame together in fastening the moving head, which in effect becomes a strong girt across the frame; the carriages also have an equal and independent hold on both sides of a shear. In following this matter thus far, it may be seen how many conditions may have to be considered in reasoning about so apparently simple a matter as the form of ways for lathe carriages; we might even go on to many more points that have not been mentioned; but what has been explained will serve to show that the matter is not one of opinion alone, and that without practical advantages, machine tool-makers will not follow the most expensive of these two modes of mounting lathe carriages.


      In order to examine once more the state of affairs around Lige, I decided to pay another visit to that town.

      I started on my return journey to The Netherlands sick to death. The consequences of lying on that wet floor made themselves badly felt, and besides being quite stiff and chilly, my interior was badly out of order.Marine and railway engineering have engrossed the best talent in the world; investigation and research has been expended upon these subjects in a degree commensurate with their importance, and it would be hard to suggest a single want in the many able text-books that have been prepared upon the subjects. Marine and railway engineering are sciences that may, in a sense, be separated from the ordinary constructive arts, and studied at the end of a course in mechanical engineering, but are hardly [61] proper subjects for an apprentice to take up at the beginning.

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      The following propositions in regard to tempering, comprehend the main points to be observed:That mad fury was also intensified considerably by the accusations about gruesome mutilations committed on German soldiers by Belgians, who were said to have cut off the noses, ears, genitals, and so on of their enemies. These rumours were so persistent that in the end it was generally believed in neutral countries that these things had happened frequently.

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      On August 25th the Antwerp garrison made a sortie, in the direction of Louvain. At the beginning the Belgians were successful, and came within four and a half miles of this town. For a moment the situation became critical, and at about seven o'clock a small troop of cavalry came at a furious gallop from the scene of battle to Louvain, probably to summon the assistance of the garrison.But from my personal knowledge and the evidence referred to, I am able to establish the following facts in connection with the events that preceded and followed the destruction of Louvain.

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      CHAPTER XX. GENERALISATION OF SHOP PROCESSES.


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